Friday, November 29, 2019
A Study on Employee Attitude and Leadership Behaviour free essay sample
ABSTRACT The Research titled namely Ã¢â¬Å"A Study on Employee attitude Leadership StyleÃ¢â¬ is a research study conducted among various managers in different functional areas in Sify Software Limited Everonn Education Limited. In this research study, the researcher has made an attempt to identify the various styles followed by leaders due to different behavior among employees. The study mainly focus on the various attitudes of employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s in different groups and its impact of the performance if individual, group or team organization. Further, the study also focuses on finding out the significant relationship between the attitude of employees and its impact of completion of module, work, deadlines, and target. This study is limited to the managers working at Sify Software Limited Everonn Education Limited. The Researcher has proposed to use descriptive type of research Analytical type of result. The Researcher has proposed to use descriptive type research, in order to collect the real facts from the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s regarding the attitude of the employees. We will write a custom essay sample on A Study on Employee Attitude and Leadership Behaviour or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Researcher has also proposed to use Analytical type of result to analyze the behavior of employees and its impact of deadline productivity. Once the data has been collected from the respondents (Managers), the Researcher has proposed to use various statistical tools like Percentage Analysis, Weighted Average Method, Chi-Square Method, One-Sample Run Test, etc. , and in order to analysis the various types of behaviors, the researcher has also planned to use cause and effect of diagram. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1INTRODUCTION Employee values, attitudes, and leadership behavior play a very important role in enhancing employee work motivation and performance. Employee work values, attitudes and leadership behavior can carefully be adjusted to produce a strong impact on employee work motivation. It would, therefore, be interesting to examine the precise nature of their roles in influencing the intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation of employees. Individuals vary in their value systems. For example, achievement is a concern for the advancement of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s career while concern for others may reflect caring, compassionate. Supervisory behavior may vary considerably in the same job situation. Behaviors such as encouraging other employees or helping others work on difficult tasks. A supervisory behavior may adopt democratic orientation or punishment when interacting with employees and thus may affect the work behavior. Though research on leadership styles, work values, and attitudes is concerned with finding the conclusions as to what specific leader behavior, work values and attitudes would produce a strong impact on employee work motivation and performance, no clear-cut conclusions have yet been rendered. It is, therefore, necessary to examine these issues, on a relative basis, which characteristics may act as more effective motivators in employee motivation and work performance. With such an understanding, management would better be able to use available motivational tools for their maximum impact on employee work performance. Thus the objective of this study is to examine the importance of values, attitudes and leadership behaviors in employee work motivation and performance. To gain a deeper insight into the exact nature of such influence, the roles of employee values, attitudes and leadership behavior in influencing intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation and performance are examined. Finally, the study explores the managerial implications of the findings and discusses the actions that might lead to improvements in employee motivation. VALUES, ATTITUDES AND EMPLOYEE WORK MOTIVATION The following description relates to values, attitudes, and employee motivation. VALUES Values are enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence (Rokeach, M 1973). Some basic values, which are expected to affect the attitude and work motivation of an employee, would logically include: Family: The extent to which the job offers family well-being to the employees Recreation: The extent to which the job offers recreational facilities to the employees A sense of accomplishment: The degree to which the person feels the job gives the person a sense of accomplishment after the job is done. Advancing at the company: The degree to which the person feels the job will create opportunities for advancement. Financial security: The extent to which the job offers financial security to person. Integrity: The extent to which the job provides information accurately and emphasizes impartiality and recognizes different points of view ATTITUDES Attitudes are not the same as values. Attitudes are evaluative statements Ã¢â¬âeither favorable or unfavorableÃ¢â¬âconcerning objects people, or events. It has been treated both as a general attitude and as satisfaction with five specific dimensions of job: pay, the work itself, promotion, opportunities, supervision and co-workers (Smith, Kendall, and Hulin, 1969; Balzer and Smith et al, 1990). The combined effects of these factors produce for the individual some measure of satisfaction and dissatisfaction (Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman, 1959). Definitions of these five dimensions of the job are given as under: Definitions of key Job Dimensions Job DimensionsDefinition Work SatisfactionThe extent to which an employee is satisfied with work, including opportunities for creativity and task variety, allowing an individual to increase his or her knowledge, changes in responsibility, amount of work, security, and job enrichment (Balzer and Smith et al, 1990; Smith et al, 1969) Pay SatisfactionThe extent to which an employee forms an attitude toward pay based on perceived difference between actual pay and the expected pay. Expected pay is based on the value of perceived inputs and outputs of the job and the pay of other employees holding similar jobs or possessing similar qualifications (Balzer and Smith et al, 1990) Supervision SatisfactionThe extent to which an employee is satisfied with his or supervision, as measured by consideration and employee-centered actions of the supervisor and the perceived competency of the supervisor by the subordinate (Balzer and Smith et al, 1990, Herzberg et al, 1957) Satisfaction with promotionsThe degree to which an employee is satisfied with the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s promotion policy, including frequency of promotions, and the desirability of promotions (Balzer and Smith et al, 1990, Herzberg et al 1957) Co-workersÃ¢â¬â¢ SatisfactionThe work-related interaction and the mutual liking or admiration of fellow employees (Bazler and Smith et al, 1990, Smith et al, 1969, Alderfer, 1969) Overall Job SatisfactionThe extent to which an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s desires, expectations and needs are fulfilled by employment (Szilagi, Sims, and Terrill, 1977) 1. 2INDUSTRY PROFILE As the study is applicable only for e-Learning industry let us have a brief introduction about the software industry below. The current e-learning boom in India has added to the existing woes. Standards apart, the industry hangs on the edge where processes and players are dubious. Much of this blame can be put on the Indian governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to put together a regulatory body. Unregulated and unstructured, the e-learning industry in India is likely to wreck havoc for the global e-learning industry as small vendors pile up huge learning garbage for clients worldwide. E-learning in India has come of age. Two decades and the nation already cherish several global e-learning players on its soil. This can be attributed to some basic reasons like cheap human resources, a large pool of English-speaking workforce and Ã¢â¬Ëbusiness discountsÃ¢â¬â¢ offered by the central and state governments. Although exact figures of the size of the industry is not available, a conservative estimate shows the offshore e-learning industry at about $150 million in 2004-05, up almost by 200 percent in the last two years. In spite such impressive figures, the e-learning industry in India remains mired with a plethora of issues. Some of these issues include lack of uniform e-learning standards and workplace practices, and the lack of adequate human resources to power the spiraling upward growth. These concerns apart, government apathy has also bolstered fly-by-night e-learning entrepreneurs who eye quick bucks and increasingly deliver Ã¢â¬Ëlearning garbageÃ¢â¬â¢ to a global clientele. Smaller vendors in India have setup e-learning business houses with paltry investments of a few thousand dollars Ã¢â¬â in the hope of getting a sizeable pie of the global e-learning business. Most of these short-term vendors run their shows from North India Ã¢â¬â from places in and around the National Capital Region of Delhi. The modus operandi for these vendors is simple. They rent in a couple of rooms in an urban area and advertise for resources in job websites and newspapers. Writers, designers and technology professionals Ã¢â¬â mostly unskilled Ã¢â¬â are hired by the dozens. The average salary of the employees ranges anything between $100 to $400 and the working hours stretch well over 72 hours per week. Next, these companies setup small sales calling teams to call up international clients asking for work. The sales pitch is often exaggerated and boasts of a few Ã¢â¬Å"big namesÃ¢â¬ . To show their experience, these vendors cull-out a few odd CBTÃ¢â¬â¢s from other companies or Ã¢â¬ËstealÃ¢â¬â¢ courses through their contacts. The basic quality that behooves a standard e-learning company is absent in these companies. Proprietors remain ignorant of even the most basic information that is essential to run the show. A Java programmer, for example, is asked to hone his skills in C++ or any other program since he is responsible for all Ã¢â¬ËprogrammingÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Almost anyone who walks in for the position of writers is employed as an Ã¢â¬Ëinstructional designerÃ¢â¬â¢, primarily because they can be asked to work for lesser salaries on the pretext that they lack instructional designing experience. Vendors also rely on these writers to validate the learning content for authenticity even when content validation remains the domain of the expert, the Subject Matter Expert (SME). The writers and designers are instructed to download content from Internet websites and Ã¢â¬ËrewriteÃ¢â¬â¢ them before using it. A basic ignorance of the Internet medium on the part of the owners means that the writers are often confused with the content because no single idea or information on the Internet appears consistent. E-learning processes are virtually absent in these companies. All that offers a direct benefit to the proprietor becomes part of the practiced processes. A Project Manager, for example, may be required to recruit people, review e-learning courses, undertake marketing activities, and do just anything that catches the fancy of the owner. In some companies, it was observed that programmers were asked to work as typists. The motto: no resource should sit idle. Employees who work for more than 9 hours a day are neither paid additional remuneration nor are given facilities like cabs and food for their late stay and long hours of work. As an e-learning professional once remarked, Ã¢â¬Å"employees in these fly-by-night ventures reminds one of the rampant practice of human slavery in Africa and Arabian countries a few centuries back. Professional torture apart, these employees are also subjected to extremely inhuman conditions of work Ã¢â¬â congested workplace, outdated computers, stinking toilets, and the same paltry salary year after year. Employees in these companies too appear to have resigned to their fates Ã¢â¬â partly because their poor education that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t stand them in good stead for jobs in big e-learning MNCs and also because most do not have a professional competence in English language. This phenomenon is rarely reported by any section of the Indian media, perhaps due to ignorance or for fear of antagonizing the international fraternity. The abysmal condition and the unplanned e-learning sector, however, have both a positive and a negative side to it. The positive side is that these e-learning ventures help to reinforce the fact that there is no alternate to quality, and quality comes from the big guys, not the fly-by-night operators. The flipside is that the employees in tiny Indian -learning ventures rarely get the exposure to standard work processes and world-class e-learning products thereby subjecting themselves to professional impairment. Unfortunate for the Indian e-learning industry, at a n era of globalization and information revolution, Indian laws too have failed to contain these IT hawks. While the existing labour laws do have provisions against inhuman practices in the private workplace, in practice they remain a mirage. Most of the employees neither have the financial resources to chase litigation nor are they willing to Ã¢â¬ËwasteÃ¢â¬â¢ their time. The Southern part of India presents a striking contrast to the North. Recent years have seen a rapid and strategic development of global e-learning companies in the South, in places like Bangalore and Chennai. Several global players have also setup their centers in Pune, Mumbai and Hyderabad. Not surprising, the South has become a favorite e-learning destinations for serious e-learning players because of the absence of the mayhem so rampant in the Northern part of the country. Although the same Indian laws apply to all states across India, security and infrastructure is usually better in the Southern states than in the North. Consequently, most of these global giants are reluctant to setup their operations in the North for obvious reasons: lax security, incompetent e-learning resources, and rampant corruption. However of all the paraphernalia, one primary reason that dissuades the big names in e-learning from setting bases in North India is the abysmally poor skill-sets of the workforce here. In an era of cut-throat competition, generalized skills fetch little or paltry returns. In the past companies like Tata Interactive Services, Brainvisa, Sify e-learning and Accenture have all failed to locate substantial trained workforce from the North for its setups in the South. Amidst all the rigmarole, smaller global clients seeking Ã¢â¬ËcheapÃ¢â¬â¢ e-learning courses remain unconcerned about the operatives of these vile businessmen. The only thing that seemingly matters for them is Ã¢â¬Ëcheaper productsÃ¢â¬â¢, even if it comes in poor quality or if the employees who developed them are subjected to inhuman practices. Its time that global clients shed their ignorance and act responsibly by seeking detailed credentials from smaller e-learning vendors in India on their HR processes, employee welfare schemes and workforce competence. Failing to do this will not result in the development of shabby e-learning courses. The state of e-learning in India, particularly the frenzy in North India, remains a serious concern for the industry. Either the law of the land has to haul-up the desperados or wait till the hawks eat up the industry for the worse. A regulatory authority is essential now, if the industry is to survive and prosper. Money-eyed hawks canÃ¢â¬â¢t be allowed to have a field day. If they hang around for long, the death of the industry in India is imminent. 1. 3 COMPANY HISTORY 1. 3. 1 SIFY SOFTWARE LIMITED Sify eLearning was formed in December 2000. With over 8 years of experience in the training domain and our speciality in Instructional Design and Interactive Multimedia Content Development, we have developed over 5000 hours of learning content comprising Web based training (WBT), Computer based training (CBT), and Instructor Led training (ILT) courses. We have close to 300 employees located in our offices in India, the US, UK, and the Middle East. In India, Sifys offices are located in Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai, and Bangalore. Sify eLearning, which ranks among the top three eLearning Services providers in India, is a part of Sify Technologies Ltd. (NASDAQ:SIFY), with a revenue of US$150 million in 2008. Sify Technologies (www. sifycorp. com) is a pioneer and leader in the Internet, networking, and e-Commerce services in India and serves more than 1500 corporate and 600,000 retail consumers. We are proud to be the preferred eLearning vendor to many Fortune 100 companies. 1. 3. 2EVERONN EDUCATION LIMITED Everonn is one of the leading educational companies in India. Everonn today is the largest VSAT education network in the World. Everonn is listed in both the NSE and BSE. With a firm belief that technology-enabled learning can truly nullify social and economic boundaries, EveronnÃ¢â¬â¢s achievements have helped millions of students achieve their dreams. From its pioneering VSAT-enabled virtual and interactive classrooms to its emphasis on offering only the highest-quality content to students, EveronnÃ¢â¬â¢s quest for excellence has enabled the company to repeatedly break new grounds in the Indian education industry. EveronnÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to a better standard of education is the guiding principle behind all its activities, from making Pre-school toddlers school ready to enhancing the employability of college students and providing the best entrance exam guidance in the nation. 1. 4PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED The Research titled namely Ã¢â¬Å"A Study on Employee attitude Leadership StyleÃ¢â¬ is a research study conducted among various managers in different functional areas in Sify Software Limited Everonn Education Limited. In this research study, the researcher has made an attempt to identify the various styles followed by leaders due to different behavior among employees. The study mainly focus on the various attitudes of employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s in different groups and its impact of the performance if individual, group or team organization. Further, the study also focuses on finding out the significant relationship between the attitude of employees and its impact of completion of module, work, deadlines, and target. This study is limited to the managers working at Sify Software Limited Everonn Education Limited. 1. 5NEED FOR THE STUDY The need for the study is to bring out the various attitude of employee in different groups and its impact on the performance of individual, group or team organization. This research study is restricted to employees working in Sify Software limited Everonn Education Limited. Generally employees working in any software companies are from different background in the sense they are from different regions, different culture, language, belief, Qualification, religion, communities etc. , which generally varies from the employees working in other sectors. This difference in attitude of employees is a very big challenge for software companies since it leads to many conflicts among the employees that affect the conducive working environment of the organization. In this study the researcher mainly focuses on changes in attitude of employees and the level of impact on their performance. Further the researcher has made an attempt to analyze the change in leadership behavior due to changes in employee attitude. In addition, the study will also be helpful in finding out the significant relationship between the attitude of employees and its impact on completion of module, work, deadlines, and target. 1. 6OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 1. 6. 1PRIMARY OBJECTIVE 1. To study the changes in attitude of employees and the behavioral changes of leadership at Sify software limited Everonn Education Limited. 1. 6. 2SECONDARY OBJECTIVES 1. To identify and analyze the relationship between employee attitude and leadership behavior in Sify Software Limited Everonn Education Limited. 2. To analyze the level of impact of leadership behavior on the team and performance of team. 3. To find out various ways to improve the attitude of people towards organizational commitments. 4. To identify the relationship between the attitude of employees and their performance towards their job. 1. 7SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study may help to find out the style to be adapted by leadership that may help them to effectively control the attitude of employees and also it helps to influence the workers and to extract work from them. This study may show the various characteristics of employees and its impact on the performance. Generally employees working in any software companies are from different background in the sense they are from different regions, different culture, language, belief, Qualification, religion, communities etc. , which generally varies from the employees working in other sectors. This difference in attitude of employees is a very big challenge for software companies since it leads to many conflicts among the employees that affect the conducive working environment of the organization. In this study the researcher mainly focuses on changes in attitude of employees and the level of impact on their performance. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY 2. 1REVIEW OF LITERATURE ?Attitudes are not the same as values. Attitudes are evaluative statements Ã¢â¬âeither favorable or unfavorable concerning objects people, or events. Employee values, attitudes, and leadership behavior play a very important role in enhancing employee work motivation and performance. Employee work values, attitudes and leadership behavior can carefully be adjusted to produce a strong impact on employee work motivation. It would, therefore, be interesting to examine the precise nature of their roles in influencing the intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation of employees. ?Leadership Theory Leadership Styles: Leaders and followers each have different traits, values and levels of motivation. Theories that explain leadership effectiveness in terms of situational moderator variables are called contingency theories of leadership (Yukl 2006). FiedlerÃ¢â¬â¢s (1964) contingency model of leadership effectiveness is contingent upon the interaction of leadership style and situational favorableness (Liu et al. 2003). Thus, leader effectiveness is the product of many variables related to the followers, the task, and the organization (Tatum, et. al. , 2003). Transformational leadership theory emphasizes longer-term and vision-based motivational processes (Bass Avolio, 1997; Liu et al, 2003) and attempts to capture the emotional and symbolic aspects of leadership, helping researchers understand how leaders influence followers and motivate them to make self-sacrifices, putting the needs of the mission or organization above materialistic self-interests (Yukl, 2006). Researchers have found that most managers believe there is no single universal style of leadership applicable in all situations (Yun, Cox, and Sims, Jr. , 2006; Lord et al. , 2001). For example, a task-oriented leadership style may be most appropriate where a job involves psychologically immature or inexperienced workers; whereas, a relations-oriented leadership style may be most appropriate where workers are highly experienced and can be trusted to work autonomously (Tatum, et. al. , 2003). ?Group Types: Yukl (2006) defines several types of teams that can be found within an organization; two such teams include: Functional and Cross-Functional. Yukl (2006) provides the following about each team: Ã¢â¬Å"Functional teams are characterized by members of an organization with specialized jobs but are all part of the same basic function (e. g. maintenance, quality, etc. ). These teams operate for a long duration of time with membership that is relatively stable. Cross-Functional teams are characterized by members from a combination of functional subunits (e. g. quality, production, sales, and maintenance) working together on projects that require joint problem-solving skills. These teams operate until their task is completed. Membership may be stable over the life of the team or it may change as some functions increase/decrease in importanceÃ¢â¬ . Leadership Credibility: Credibility is the foundation of leadership, and employees want their leaders to be honest, inspiring, competent, and forward looking (Kouzes and Posner, 2000). The credible leader must be seen as well informed and worthy of belief (Stoner, 1989). Credibility n urtures collaborative, cooperative relationships where employees assume responsibility for accomplishing work-related objectives voluntarily (Gabris Ihrke, 1996). For credibility to exist there must be trust between leader and follower (Kouzes Posner, 2000). Leadership credibility deals with perceived believability toward the leader-supervisor as someone an employee can trust in a supervisor-subordinate relationship (Gabris Ihrke, 1996). Organizational Justice: Organizational justice theory is intimately tied to leadership and decision processes (Tatum, et. al, 2003) and is based on the idea that a set of justice rules is used by individuals to evaluate fair treatment; and the extent to which those rules are satisfied or violated determines perceptions of justice or injustice (Mayer, et al. , 2007). Procedural justice refers to the perceived fairness of the methods used to make organizational decisions (Tepper, et. al. , 2006; Bauer, et al, 2001). In procedural justice, employees are concerned about whether the decision process is fair and the process used to determine the outcome was just (Fernandes Awamleh, 2006). Perceptions of fair procedures enhance employee acceptance of organizational outcomes (Latham Pinder, 2005), lead to organizational commitment (Lind Tyler, 1988) and satisfaction at the individual level (De Cremer, 2007). Shared perceptions of justice at the group level are positively related to satisfaction and commitment to the organization (Mayer, et al. , 2007). Just outcomes signal to employees that they are valued by the organization (Tyler Lind, 1992). Individuals experience procedural injustice when they are denied voice and decision control (Tepper, et. al. , 2006). Interactional justice is defined as the interpersonal treatment people receive as procedures are enacted (Bies Moag, 1986; Colquitt, 2001). Interactional justice is concerned with how information is communicated and whether individuals affected by a decision are treated with respect and dignity (Fernandes Awamleh, 2006). ?Group Commitment: Commitment is believed to affect organizational performance (Fiorito, et al. , 2007) and outcomes such as job satisfaction (Williams Hazer, 1986). Commitment is strongly influenced by leadership (Kouzes Posner, 2000). When employees feel unfairly treated, they may respond affectively with low commitment (Latham Pinder, 2005). The effect of leadership style on group interaction depends on both the consistency of the leadership style and the attitude group members have toward the leadership style (Kahai, Sosik, Avolio, 1997). Describing the task in a way that links it to member values and ideals, explaining why a project or task is important, involving members in planning strategies for attaining the objectives, and empowering members to find creative solutions to problems (Yukl, 2006). If members see leadership as legitimate, they should remain more attached to the team and exert more effort to benefit it (Colquitt, Noe, Jackson, 2002). ?It is readily accepted that organizational change impacts employees in a variety of ways (French, Bell, Zawacki, 2000). Consequently, the impact of organizational change on employee attitudes has received considerable research attention (e. g. Gardner, Dunham, Cummings, Pierce, 1987; Griffin, 1997; Lines, 2004; Saari Judge, 2004; Schweiger DeNisi, 1991). Research indicates that employee attitudes are related to how individuals perceive or react to change (Mossholder, Settoon, Armenakis, Harris, 2000). This is important since positive perceptions of change can enhan ce the implementation of these organizational initiatives (Lines, 2004; Armenakis, Harris, Feild, 1999). In this study, employee attitudes are investigated when organizational change is caused by the introduction of new technology. As depicted in Figure 1, salient attitudes of interest include job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intent to turnover, and job stress. The most-used research definition of job satisfaction is by Locke (1976), who defined it as Ã¢â¬Å". . . a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s job or job experiencesÃ¢â¬ (p. 1304). Implicit in LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s definition is the importance of both affect, or feeling, and cognition, or thinking. When we think, we have feelings about what we think. Conversely, when we have feelings, we think about what we feel. Cognition and affect are thus inextricably linked, in our psy-chology and even in our biology. Thus, when evaluating our jobs, as when we assess most anything important to us, both thinking and feeling are involved. Continuing this theoretical development, Judge and his colleagues (Judge Bono, 2001; Judge, Locke, Durham, Kluger, 1998) found that a key personality trait, core self-evaluation, correlates with (is statistically related to) employee job satisfaction. They also found that one of the primary causes of the relationship was through the perception of the job itself. Thus, it appears that the most important situational effect on job satisfactionÃ¢â¬âthe job itselfÃ¢â¬âis linked to what may be the most important personality trait to predict job satisfactionÃ¢â¬âcore self-evaluation. Evidence also indicates that some other personality traits, such as extra-version and conscientiousness, can also influence job satisfaction (Judge, Heller, Mount, 2002) In the research literature, the two most extensively validated employee attitude survey measures are the Job Descriptive Index (JDI; Smith, Kendall, Hulin, 1969) and the Mi nnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ; Weiss, Dawis, England, Lofquist, 1967). The JDI assesses satisfaction with five different job areas: pay, promotion, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The JDI is reliable and has an impressive array of validation evidence. The MSQ has the advantage of versatilityÃ¢â¬âlong and short forms are available, as well as faceted and overall measures. Another measure used in job satisfaction research (e. g. , Judge, Erez, Bono, Thoresen, in press) is an updated and reliable five-item version of an earlier scale by Brayfield and Rothe (1951). All of these measures have led to greater scientific understanding of employee attitudes, and their greatest value may be for research purposes, yet these measures may be useful for practitioners as well. In practice, organizations often wish to obtain a more detailed assessment of employee attitudes and/or customize their surveys to assess issues unique to their firm. ?Job satisfaction is one of the most extensively researched work-related attitudes (Loscocco Roschelle, 1991). Saari and Judge (2004), however, observed that HR practitioners lack thorough knowledge of job satisfaction and related antecedents. Job satisfaction is operationally defined as an individuals assessment of the degree to which their work-related values have been achieved (Locke, 1969; Locke, 1976). Research suggests that organizational change has a discernable impact on job satisfaction (see, for example, Ferguson Cheyne, 1995) which is associated with organizational citizenship behaviors that are beneficial to organizational effectiveness (Organ, 1990). ?Organizational commitment is also a frequently studied job attitude (Lines, 2004; Loscocco Roschelle, 1991). Definitions and conceptualizations of the organizational commitment construct are numerous and diverse. Morrow (1983) observed at least 25 different conceptualizations of organizational commitment. Despite this diversity, OReilly and Chatman (1986), among others, suggest that psychological attachment to an organization is a theme underlying most conceptualizations of organizational commitment. Of particular interest in this study is the relationship between affective organizational commitment and reactions to the organizational changes since individuals with high levels of affective commitment tend to exert extraordinary effort on behalf of an organization (Porter, Steers, Mowday, Boulian, 1974). In addition, individuals with high levels of affective commitment are likely to remain with an organization because they want to remain with the organization (Porter et al. , 1974), not because they have no other alternatives or because of social pressure. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1PROPOSED METHODOLOGY 3. 1. 1FOR EMPLOYEES The Researcher has proposed to use Qualitative and Analytical type of research. The Researcher has proposed to use Qualitative type of research, to assess the behavior of various employees in different teams which has an impact on overall performance of the team. The Researcher has also proposed to use Analytical type of result to analyze the effect of behavior on their individual performance towards their relationship with peers etc. 3. 1. 2FOR MANAGERS To assess the changes in leadership behavior due to changes in employee attitude, the Researcher has used the same Qualitative and Analytical type of research design. 3. 2RESEARCH DESIGN The research design is the blue print for fulfilling objectives and answering questions of specific research problem. A research design is purely and simply the framework a plan for a study that guides the collection and analysis of the data. The research designs used in this project are listed below. 3. 2. 1 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH To describe the characteristics of certain groups e. g. users of a product with different age, sex etc. , to determine whether certain variables are associated e. g. , age and usage of a product. 3. 2. 2 ANALYTICAL RESEARCH To analyze the behavior of employees and its impact of deadline productivity. 3. 3DATA COLLECTION METHOD In this study the researcher has proposed to use both Primary and secondary data. 3. 3. 1PRIMARY DATA Primary data will be collected through a structured Questionnaire from the target respondents.